ABSTRACT: Cystourethroscopy can be performed by obstetrician–gynecologists for diagnostic and occasional operative indications. Intraoperative use of cystourethroscopy to confirm urinary tract (urethral, bladder, and ureteral) integrity is one of the most important indications, because these findings can greatly affect patient care. This monograph provides an overview of appropriate instrumentation and technique for cystourethroscopy in women with normal anatomy. Also, it depicts benign and malignant lesions of the urethra and bladder and shows examples of intraoperative abnormalities, such as incidental bladder or urethral penetration, and nonpatent ureters, foreign body erosion, or fistula-related complications. Clinical vignettes outline differential diagnoses and management of common cystourethroscopic findings.