ABSTRACT: Dementia is a syndrome of progressive cognitive and functional decline. The prevalence of dementia is higher among women than among men and is increasing in absolute numbers as more individuals are living to older ages. Patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment frequently are seen in primary care settings. Physicians who provide care to women can expect to encounter increasing numbers of patients with memory problems in the years ahead. Different types of dementia have been distinguished with different clinical manifestations and underlying pathologies. This monograph addresses current knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of memory loss and dementia that will aid the obstetrician–gynecologist in treating patients with these conditions.