To provide updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention, screening, and diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Postmenopausal patients without identified risk factors for fracture, low bone mineral density, or secondary osteoporosis related to medication or a medical condition.
This guideline was developed using an a priori protocol in conjunction with a writing team consisting of two specialists in obstetrics and gynecology appointed by the ACOG Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines–Gynecology and one external subject matter expert. ACOG medical librarians completed a comprehensive literature search for primary literature within the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, and MEDLINE. Studies that moved forward to the full-text screening stage were assessed by two authors from the writing team on the basis of standardized inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included studies underwent quality assessment, and a modified GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) evidence-to-decision framework was applied to interpret and translate the evidence into recommendation statements.
This Clinical Practice Guideline includes updated recommendations on the role of exercise, calcium, and vitamin D in osteoporosis prevention; osteoporosis screening and diagnosis; rescreening intervals; and interventions to prevent falls. Recommendations are classified by strength and evidence quality. Ungraded Good Practice Points are included to provide guidance when a formal recommendation could not be made because of inadequate or nonexistent evidence.