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Committee Opinion Number 781, June 2019

ABSTRACT: Infertility, defined as failure to achieve pregnancy within 12 months of unprotected intercourse or therapeutic donor insemination in women younger than 35 years or within 6 months in women older than 35 years, affects up to 15% of couples. An infertility evaluation may be offered to any patient who by definition has infertility or is at high risk of infertility. Women older than 35 years should receive an expedited evaluation and undergo treatment after 6 months of failed attempts to become pregnant or earlier, if clinically indicated. In women older than 40 years, more immediate e...


Committee Opinion Number 780, June 2019

ABSTRACT: At puberty, a patient with an imperforate hymen typically presents with a vaginal bulge of thin hymenal tissue with a dark or bluish hue caused by the hematocolpos behind it. Other findings that may be present include an abdominal mass, urinary retention, dysuria, constipation, and dyschezia. On evaluation, the goal is to differentiate an imperforate hymen from other obstructing anatomic etiologies, such as labial adhesions, urogenital sinus, transverse vaginal septum, or distal vaginal atresia. Surgical intervention is necessary only in symptomatic prepubertal patients. After confi...


Committee Opinion Number 779, June 2019

ABSTRACT: Obstructive uterovaginal anomalies may present after puberty with amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, recurrent vaginal discharge, or infertility. The evaluation of a patient with a suspected obstructive reproductive anomaly should include a detailed medical history, physical examination, and imaging. The genital examination is critical to differentiate a patient with an imperforate hymen from a patient with labial adhesions, urogenital sinus, transverse vaginal septum, or distal vaginal atresia. Pelvic ultrasonography is the initial imaging method recommended for a patient with ...


Committee Opinion Number 778, May 2019

(Replaces Committee Opinion Number 616, January 2015)

ABSTRACT: Newborn screening is the largest genetic screening program in the United States, with approximately 4 million infants screened annually. Newborn screening is a mandatory state-based public health program that provides all newborns in the United States with testing and necessary follow-up health care for a variety of medical conditions. The goal of this public health program is to decrease morbidity and mortality by screening for disorders in which early intervention will improve neonatal and long-term health outcomes. The program’s functions include the initial screening of all newb...


Committee Opinion Number 770, March 2019

ABSTRACT: Morcellation is a surgical technique used to reduce the size of the uterus or myomas by creating smaller pieces to allow the tissue to be removed through small incisions or with laparoscopic instruments. Open (uncontained) morcellation of the uterus and myomas has been scrutinized because of the possible spread of an unsuspected leiomyosarcoma while using a power morcellator during a hysterectomy or myomectomy for presumed symptomatic uterine leiomyomas. Before considering open morcellation of the uterus, a woman should be evaluated to determine if she is at increased risk of malign...


Committee Opinion Number 769, March 2019

(Replaces Committee Opinion No. 537, October 2012)

ABSTRACT: The reprocessing and reuse of single-use instruments has become increasingly common. Although there are limited data on reprocessed single-use devices, existing studies have found a significant rate of physical defects, performance issues, or improper decontamination. There are currently no data in the medical literature of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of reprocessed single-use devices in gynecologic surgery. The use of a reprocessed single-use device provides no direct benefit to an individual patient or her physician. It is the operating surgeon’s ethical responsibili...


7.
January 2019

Committee Opinion Number 762, January 2019

ABSTRACT: The goal of prepregnancy care is to reduce the risk of adverse health effects for the woman, fetus, and neonate by working with the woman to optimize health, address modifiable risk factors, and provide education about healthy pregnancy. All those planning to initiate a pregnancy should be counseled, including heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and gender nonconforming individuals. Counseling can begin with the following question: “Would you like to become pregnant in the next year?” Prepregnancy counseling is appropriate whether the reprodu...


Committee Opinion Number 760, December 2018

ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea, or menstrual pain, is the most common menstrual symptom among adolescent girls and young women. Most adolescents experiencing dysmenorrhea have primary dysmenorrhea, defined as painful menstruation in the absence of pelvic pathology. When the patient’s history suggests primary dysmenorrhea, empiric treatment should be initiated. When a patient does not experience clinical improvement for her dysmenorrhea within 3–6 months of therapy initiation, her obstetrician–gynecologist should investigate for possible secondary causes and for treatment adherence. Secondary dysmenor...


Committee Opinion Number 757, November 2018

(Replaces Committee Opinion No. 630, May 2015)

ABSTRACT: Perinatal depression, which includes major and minor depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or in the first 12 months after delivery, is one of the most common medical complications during pregnancy and the postpartum period, affecting one in seven women. It is important to identify pregnant and postpartum women with depression because untreated perinatal depression and other mood disorders can have devastating effects. Several screening instruments have been validated for use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist...


10.
October 2018

Committee Opinion Number 755, October 2018

(Replaces Committee Opinion Number 534, August 2012)

ABSTRACT: A well-woman visit provides an excellent opportunity to counsel patients about maintaining a healthy lifestyle and minimizing health risks. Given the shifting and complex landscape of care, in which many women may not receive all the recommended preventive services, obstetrician–gynecologists have an opportunity to contribute to the overall health and well-being of women throughout the lifespan by providing recommended preventive services and counseling. Taking a comprehensive history (specifically obtaining detailed information on symptoms and past medical and gynecologic history) ...


Committee Opinion Number 754, October 2018

ABSTRACT: The pelvic examination has long been considered a fundamental component of the well-woman visit, and many women and gynecologic care providers view this visit as an opportunity to discuss sexual and reproductive health issues. Traditionally, a pelvic examination is performed for asymptomatic women as a screening tool for gynecologic cancer, infection, and asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease; some obstetrician–gynecologists and patients consider it important in detecting subclinical disease, despite evidence to the contrary. Given changes in screening recommendations and the abi...


Committee Opinion Number 750, September 2018

ABSTRACT: Gynecologic surgery is very common: hysterectomy alone is one of the most frequently performed operating room procedures each year. It is well known that surgical stress induces a catabolic state that leads to increased cardiac demand, relative tissue hypoxia, increased insulin resistance, impaired coagulation profiles, and altered pulmonary and gastrointestinal function. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways were developed with the goal of maintaining normal physiology in the perioperative period, thus optimizing patient outcomes without increasing postoperative complicat...


Committee Opinion Number 747, August 2018

(Replaces Committee Opinion Number 607, August 2014)

ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of cancer in females younger than 20 years is rare, with the incidence of 17 cases per 100,000 individuals per year in the United States. Although advancements in cancer therapy have dramatically improved childhood cancer survival, gynecologists should be aware of the increased risk of adverse reproductive health effects from each type of therapy. Cancer and its treatment may have immediate or delayed adverse effects on reproductive health. Gynecologists may be consulted for the following issues: pubertal concerns; menstrual irregularities; heavy menstrual bleeding and...


Committee Opinion Number 740, June 2018

ABSTRACT: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, defines eating disorders as a “persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning.” The correct diagnosis of and distinction between eating disorders are important because the course, prognosis, and treatment may be vastly different. Although the age at peak incidence can vary depending on the eating disorder, these disorders commonly arise during adolescence. Adult ...


Committee Opinion Number 734, May 2018

(Replaces Committee Opinion Number 440, August 2009)

ABSTRACT: Cancer of the endometrium is the most common type of gynecologic cancer in the United States. Vaginal bleeding is the presenting sign in more than 90% of postmenopausal women with endometrial carcinoma. Clinical risk factors for endometrial cancer, including but not limited to age, obesity, use of unopposed estrogen, specific medical comorbidities (eg, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atypical glandular cells on screening cervical cytology), and family history of gynecologic malignancy also should be considered when evaluating postmenopausal bleeding. The clinica...


Committee Opinion Number 727, January 2018

ABSTRACT: “Cascade testing” refers to the performance of genetic counseling and testing in blood relatives of individuals who have been identified with specific genetic mutations. Testing protocols and other interventions may save lives and improve health and quality of life for these family members. Obstetrician–gynecologists should know who is eligible for cascade testing and should use all available resources to ensure that cascade testing is offered and occurs in a timely manner. Despite the clear health benefits for specific populations and individuals, obstetrician–gynecologists should ...


Committee Opinion Number 723, October 2017

(Replaces Committee Opinion Number 656, February 2016) (Reaffirmed 2019)

ABSTRACT: Imaging studies are important adjuncts in the diagnostic evaluation of acute and chronic conditions. However, confusion about the safety of these modalities for pregnant and lactating women and their infants often results in unnecessary avoidance of useful diagnostic tests or the unnecessary interruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are not associated with risk and are the imaging techniques of choice for the pregnant patient, but they should be used prudently and only when use is expected to answer a relevant clinical question or otherwise provid...


Committee Opinion Number 703, June 2017

ABSTRACT: Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is an important clinical sign of urinary tract malignancy. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria has been variably defined over the years. In addition, the evidence primarily is based on data from male patients. However, whether the patient is a man or a woman influences the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, and the risk of urinary tract malignancy (bladder, ureter, and kidney) is significantly less in women than in men. Among women, being older than 60 years, having a history of smoking, and having gross hematuria are the ...


19.
June 2017

Committee Opinion Number 702, June 2017

ABSTRACT: The female athlete triad is a medical condition observed in physically active females involving three components: 1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, 2) menstrual dysfunction, and 3) low bone density. An individual does not need to show clinical manifestations of all three components of the female athlete triad simultaneously to be affected by the condition. Consequences of these clinical conditions may not be completely reversible, so prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention are critical. All athletes are at risk of the female athlete triad, regardles...


Committee Opinion Number 693, April 2017

(Reaffirmed 2019)

ABSTRACT: Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician–gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to provide an outline of how obstetrician–gynecologists and other health care providers can best incorporate these tests into their current practices and provide appropriate pretest and posttest counseling to p...


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