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Title Date

Partner Consent for Participation in Women's Reproductive Health Research

Number 307

(Reaffirmed 2008)

ABSTRACT: Recent advances in reproductive medicine include treatment of subfertility as well as investigation of agents that may serve as both contraceptives and potential prophylaxis against sexually transmitted diseases, including potential protection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Alt...

December 2004

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Women's Health

Number 317

ABSTRACT: Significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in women's health. These health disparities largely result from differences in socioeconomic status and insurance status. Although many disparities diminish after taking these factors into account, some remain because of health care system-...

October 2005

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Maternal Decision Making Ethics and the Law

Number 321

ABSTRACT: Recent legal actions and policies aimed at protecting the fetus as an entity separate from the woman have challenged the rights of pregnant women to make decisions about medical interventions and have criminalized maternal behavior that is believed to be associated with fetal harm or adv...

November 2005

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Breastfeeding: Maternal and Infant Aspects

Number 361

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT: Evidence continues to mount regarding the value of breastfeeding for both women and their infants. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists strongly supports breastfeeding and calls on its Fellows, other health care professionals caring for women and their infants, hospita...

February 2007

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Medical Futility

Number 362

(Reaffirmed 2008)

ABSTRACT: The construct of medical futility has been used to justify a physician's unilateral refusal to provide treatment requested or demanded by a patient or the family of a patient. It is important that physicians and their institutions develop a process for dealing with conflict surrounding t...

March 2007

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Patient Testing Ethical Issues in Selection and Counseling

Number 363

(Reaffirmed 2012)

ABSTRACT: Recommendations to patients about testing should be based on current medical knowledge, a concern for the patient's best interests, and mutual consultation. In addition to establishing a diagnosis, testing provides opportunities to educate, inform, and advise. The ethical principles of r...

April 2007

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Research Involving Women

Number 377

ABSTRACT: All women should be presumed to be eligible for participation in clinical studies. The potential for pregnancy should not automatically exclude a woman from participating in a clinical study, although the use of contraception may be required for participation. Research objectives should ...

September 2007

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The Limits of Conscientious Refusal in Reproductive Medicine

Number 385

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT: Health care providers occasionally may find that providing indicated, even standard, care would present for them a personal moral problem—a conflict of conscience—particularly in the field of reproductive medicine. Although respect for conscience is important, conscientious refusals shou...

November 2007

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Ethical Decision Making in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Number 390

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT: Physicians vary widely in their familiarity with ethical theories and methods and their sensitivity toward ethical issues. It is important for physicians to improve their skills in addressing ethical questions. Obstetrician–gynecologists who are familiar with the concepts of medical ethi...

December 2007

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The Uninsured

Number 416

(Replaces No. 308, December 2004)

ABSTRACT: The United States is one of the few industrialized nations in the world that do not guarantee health care for their populations. Access to health care for all women is of paramount concern to obstetrician–gynecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Pregnant...

September 2008

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At-Risk Drinking and Illicit Drug Use Ethical Issues in Obstetric and Gynecologic Practice

Number 422

(Replaces No. 294, May 2004)

ABSTRACT: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major health problem for American women regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and age. It is costly to individuals and to society. Obstetrician–gynecologists have an ethical obligation to learn and use a protocol for universal screening qu...

December 2008

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Motivational Interviewing: A Tool for Behavior Change

Number 423

(Reaffirmed 2014)

ABSTRACT: Applying the principles of motivational interviewing to everyday patient interactions has been proved effective in eliciting "behavior change" that contributes to positive health outcomes and improved patient–physician communication. Current Procedural Terminology codes are available to ...

January 2009

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Health Care for Undocumented Immigrants

Number 425

ABSTRACT: Undocumented immigrants are less likely than other residents of the United States to have health insurance. Their access to publicly funded health programs has become increasingly limited since the passage of welfare reform in 1996 and varies from state to state. This is reflected in les...

January 2009

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Misoprostol for Postabortion Care

Number 427

ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization estimates that 67,000 women, mostly in developing countries, die each year from untreated or inadequately treated abortion complications. Postabortion care, a term commonly used by the international reproductive health community, refers to a specific set of ...

February 2009

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Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk

Number 434

(Reaffirmed 2013, Replaces No. 285, August 2003)

ABSTRACT: The relationship between induced abortion and the subsequent development of breast cancer has been the subject of a substantial amount of epidemiologic study. Early studies of the relationship between prior induced abortion and breast cancer risk were methodologically flawed. More rigoro...

June 2009

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Increasing Use of Contraceptive Implants and Intrauterine Devices To Reduce Unintended Pregnancy

Number 450

(Reaffirmed 2011)

ABSTRACT: High unintended pregnancy rates in the United States may in part be the result of relatively low use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, specifically the contraceptive implant and intrauterine devices. Top-tier reversible methods share the characteristic of requiring ...

December 2009

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Forming a Just Health Care System

Number 456

ABSTRACT: In this Committee Opinion, the Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses the College's ongoing efforts to promote a just health care system, explores justifications that inform just health care, and identifies professional responsibilities to...

March 2010

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Preparing for Disasters: Perspectives on Women

Number 457

(Reaffirmed 2014)

ABSTRACT: Emergency plans that specifically address the needs of women, infants, and children during disasters are currently underdeveloped in the United States. Pregnant women, infants, and children are adversely affected by disasters resulting in an increased number of infants with intrauterine ...

June 2010

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At-Risk Drinking and Alcohol Dependence: Obstetric and Gynecologic Implications

Number 496

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT: Compared with men, at-risk alcohol use by women has a disproportionate effect on their health and lives, including reproductive function and pregnancy outcomes. Obstetrician–gynecologists have a key role in screening and providing brief intervention, patient education, and treatment refe...

August 2011

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Adult Manifestations of Childhood Sexual Abuse

Number 498

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT: Long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are varied, complex, and often devastating. Many obstetrician-gynecologists knowingly or unknowingly provide care to abuse survivors and should screen all women for a history of such abuse. Depression, anxiety, and anger are the most commonly r...

August 2011

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