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Exposure to Toxic Environmental Agents

Committee Opinion Number 575, October 2013

Reaffirmed 2016

ABSTRACT Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians gynecologists and other reproductive health care professionals Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous and preconception and prenatal exposure t...

October 2013

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Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples

Committee Opinion Number 574, September 2013

(Replaces No. 428, February 2009)

ABSTRACT Samesex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment limited access to health care and health insurance and often a limited understanding of their health risks Samesex couples and the...

September 2013

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Breastfeeding in Underserved Women: Increasing Initiation and Continuation of Breastfeeding

Committee Opinion Number 570, August 2013

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Maternal and infant benefits from breastfeeding are well documented and are especially important to underserved women Underserved women are disproportionately likely to experience adverse health outcomes that may improve with breastfeeding They face unique barriers and have low rates of i...

August 2013

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Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request

Committee Opinion Number 559, April 2013

(Reaffirmed 2015)

ABSTRACT Cesarean delivery on maternal request is defined as a primary prelabor cesarean delivery on maternal request in the absence of any maternal or fetal indications Potential risks of cesarean delivery on maternal request include a longer maternal hospital stay an increased risk of respirator...

April 2013

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Benefits to Women of Medicaid Expansion Through the Affordable Care Act

Committee Opinion Number 552, January 2013

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Many US women are uninsured and face avoidable adverse obstetric and gynecologic health outcomes The Affordable Care Act requires an expansion of Medicaid that would increase the percentage of US women with health insurance with the anticipated benefit of improved health The 2012 Supreme ...

January 2013

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Health Care for Women in the Military and Women Veterans

Committee Opinion Number 547, December 2012

Abstract Military service is associated with unique risks to womens reproductive health As increasing numbers of women are serving in the military and a greater proportion of United States Veterans are women it is essential that obstetriciangynecologists are aware of and well prepared to address t...

December 2012

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Over-the-Counter Access to Oral Contraceptives

Committee Opinion Number 544, December 2012

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health problem in the United States Access and cost issues are common reasons why women either do not use contraception or have gaps in use A potential way to improve contraceptive access and use and possibly decrease unintended pregnancy rates ...

December 2012

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Access to Emergency Contraception

Committee Opinion Number 542, November 2012

ABSTRACT Emergency contraception includes contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected intercourse sexual assault or contraceptive failure Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first dedicated product for emergency contraception in 199...

November 2012

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Women of Color

Committee Opinion Number 536, September 2012

(Replaces Committee Opinion No. 414, August 2008)

ABSTRACT In the United States most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS occur among women of color primarily African American and Hispanic women Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact often from a partner who...

September 2012

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Health Care for Lesbians and Bisexual Women

Committee Opinion Number 525, May 2012

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Lesbians and bisexual women encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure discriminatory attitudes and treatment limited access to health care and health insurance and often a limited understanding as to what their health risks may be Health ...

May 2012

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Disclosure and Discussion of Adverse Events

Committee Opinion Number 520, March 2012

(Replaces No. 380, October 2007, Reaffirmed 2014)

ABSTRACT Disclosure and discussion of adverse events in health care with the patient are morally and ethically necessary to achieve the optimal goal of respecting patient autonomy Improving the disclosure process through education policies programmatic training and accessible resources will enhanc...

March 2012

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Intimate Partner Violence

Committee Opinion Number 518, February 2012

ABSTRACT Intimate partner violence IPV is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age economic status race religion ethnicity sexual orientation or educational background Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences in...

February 2012

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Health Care Systems for Underserved Women

Committee Opinion Number 516, January 2012

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Underserved women are those who are unable to obtain quality health care by virtue of barriers created by poverty cultural differences race or ethnicity geography sexual orientation gender identity or other factors that contribute to health care inequities With passage of the Patient Prot...

January 2012

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Health Care for Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Women

Committee Opinion Number 515, January 2012

(Reaffirmed 2015)

ABSTRACT Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service IHS The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations which vary in size and services Some are small informationa...

January 2012

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Maternal-Fetal Intervention and Fetal Care Centers

Committee Opinion Number 501, August 2011

(Reaffirmed 2014)

ABSTRACT The past two decades have yielded profound advances in the fields of prenatal diagnosis and fetal intervention Although fetal interventions are driven by a beneficencebased motivation to improve fetal and neonatal outcomes advancement in fetal therapies raises ethical issues surrounding m...

August 2011

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Adult Manifestations of Childhood Sexual Abuse

Committee Opinion Number 498, August 2011

(Reaffirmed 2015)

ABSTRACT Longterm effects of childhood sexual abuse are varied complex and often devastating Many obstetriciangynecologists knowingly or unknowingly provide care to abuse survivors and should screen all women for a history of such abuse Depression anxiety and anger are the most commonly reported e...

August 2011

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At-Risk Drinking and Alcohol Dependence: Obstetric and Gynecologic Implications

Committee Opinion Number 496, August 2011

(Reaffirmed 2013)

ABSTRACT Compared with men atrisk alcohol use by women has a disproportionate effect on their health and lives including reproductive function and pregnancy outcomes Obstetriciangynecologists have a key role in screening and providing brief intervention patient education and treatment referral for...

August 2011

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Preparing for Disasters: Perspectives on Women

Committee Opinion Number 457, June 2010

(Reaffirmed 2016)

ABSTRACT Emergency plans that specifically address the needs of women infants and children during disasters are currently underdeveloped in the United States Pregnant women infants and children are adversely affected by disasters resulting in an increased number of infants with intrauterine growth...

June 2010

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Forming a Just Health Care System

Committee Opinion Number 456, March 2010

ABSTRACT In this Committee Opinion the Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses the Colleges ongoing efforts to promote a just health care system explores justifications that inform just health care and identifies professional responsibilities to guid...

March 2010

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Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk

Committee Opinion Number 434, June 2009

(Reaffirmed 2015, Replaces No. 285, August 2003)

Abstract The relationship between induced abortion and the subsequent development of breast cancer has been the subject of a substantial amount of epidemiologic study Early studies of the relationship between prior induced abortion and breast cancer risk were methodologically flawed More rigorous ...

June 2009

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