ACOG's Wellness Work Group on Tobacco Cessation has identified the following resources to assist obstetrician-gynecologists and women's health care providers in initiating tobacco and nicotine cessation in populations with unique needs, including adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Synopsis and Tools
In this synopsis, ACOG's Wellness Work Group on Tobacco Cessation provides strategies for working with unique patient populations to help them understand the dangers of tobacco and nicotine: Unique Populations (PDF).
These resources are for information only and are not meant to be comprehensive. Referral to these resources does not imply the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ endorsement of the organization, the organization’s web site, or the content of the resource. The resources may change without notice.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking and tobacco use: trends infographics. Retrieved April 13, 2016. Graphics and posters from the CDC directed toward teenagers.
- National Cancer Institute. Smokefree Teens. Retrieved April 13, 2016. Smoke-free campaign for teenagers from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Talking to teens about tobacco use. Retrieved April 13, 2016. Guides from the CDC about talking to teenagers and their parents about smoking.
- New York State Smokers’ Quitline. Break loose. Retrieved April 13, 2016. Handout for teenagers on breaking loose from smoking; developed by the NYSMOKEFree.
- Singh T, Marynak K, Arrazola RA, Cox S, Rolle IV, King BA. Vital signs: exposure to electronic cigarette advertising among middle school and high school students—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;64:1403-8. Background on the role of advertisement in e-cigarette use by adolescents.
- Ambrose BK, Day HR, Rostron B, Conway KP, Borek N, Hyland A, et al. Flavored tobacco product use among U.S. youth aged 12–17 years, 2013–2014. JAMA 2015;314:1871–3. The use of flavorings to entice adolescents to use nicotine and tobacco products.
- Agaku IT, Singh T, Jones SE, King BA, Jamal A, Neff L, et al. Combustible and smokeless tobacco use among high school athletes—United States, 2001–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:935–9. Decreasing barriers to smoking among high school athletes.
- Rigotti NA. E-cigarette use and subsequent tobacco use by adolescents: new evidence about a potential risk of e-cigarettes. JAMA 2015;314:673-4. E-cigarettes as an entry drug to tobacco use by adolescents.
- Leventhal AM, Strong DR, Kirkpatrick MG, Unger JB, Sussman S, Riggs NR, et al. Association of electronic cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. JAMA 2015;314:700–7. E-cigarettes as an entry drug to tobacco use by adolescents.
For Healthcare Providers
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Smoking cessation during pregnancy: a clinician’s guide to helping pregnant women quit smoking. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Smoking cessation for pregnancy and beyond: a virtual clinic. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Likis FE, Andrews JC, Fonnesbeck CJ, Hartmann KE, Jerome RN, Potter SA, et al. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy and postpartum care. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 214. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Healthier pregnancy: tools and techniques to best provide ACA-covered preventive services. Provider fact sheet. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- Curtin SC, Matthews TJ. Smoking prevalence and cessation before and during pregnancy: data from the birth certificate, 2014. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016;65:1–14.
- National Cancer Institute. Smokefree women: pregnancy and motherhood. Retrieved April 13, 2016. An excellent online resource for patients.
- National Cancer Institute. Smokefree women: smokefree mom. Retrieved April 13, 2016. A texting support program for pregnant women who smoke.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. I’m ready to quit! Retrieved April 13, 2016. "I'm Ready to Quit!” has links to quit help lines, quit guides, and other resources.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco use and pregnancy. Retrieved April 13, 2016. CDC web site that describes tobacco effects during pregnancy.
- Sachs HC. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Committee on Drugs. Pediatrics 2013;132:e796–809.
- Reece-Stremtan S, Marinelli KA. Guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use or substance use disorder, revised 2015. ABM clinical protocol #21. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Breastfeed Med 2015;10:135–41.
- Hale TW, Rowe HE. Medications and mothers’ milk. 16th ed. Plano (TX): Hale Publishing; 2014.
- Smoking cessation for pregnancy and beyond: a virtual clinic. April 13, 2016.
- Mennella JA, Yourshaw LM, Morgan LK. Breastfeeding and smoking: short-term effects on infant feeding and sleep. Pediatrics 2007;120:497–502.
- Primo CC, Ruela PB, Brotto LD, Garcia TR, Lima Ede F. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants. Rev Paul Pediatr 2013;31:392–7.
- Lauria L, Lamberti A, Grandolfo M. Smoking behaviour before, during, and after pregnancy: the effect of breastfeeding. Scientificworldjournal 2012;2012:154910.
For Patients and Healthcare Providers
Talking Points with Breastfeeding Women
Also in The Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation Toolkit
• Letter From ACOG President Mark S. DeFrancesco, MD, MBA (PDF)
• Background and Introduction (PDF)
• Physiology and Complications of Smoking
• Treatment and Cessation
• Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
• Office Practice and Coding
• Web Resources